coagulation and flocculation in water treatment pdf

This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. Coagulation is a chemical process that involves neutralization of charge whereas flocculation is a physical process and does not involve neutralization of charge. In drinking water, it is used for the clarification of water, using coagulant agents mainly for municipal water treatment. Figure 1: Earthen jars used to store water “It is good to keep water in copper vessels, to expose it to sunlight and 0000009770 00000 n x�b```b``y������� ̀ �@1V����9����ٲ(׳T� B%#��B-�ש�ɤ8���j��0'�]Rࠕ�B{���m��r�d��us1�kY�c~����L Operating within the optimum parameters will reduce the cost of treatment and will increase the quality of the water. 0000003306 00000 n Download books for free. The water treatment methods available for achieving the desired objectives are as follows: 1. Common applications are municipal water supply for dissolved and Coagulation, flocculation and settlement In coagulation, a liquid coagu-☺ — ☺☺☺☺☺ ☺☺☺ — ☺☺☺☺ lant, such as aluminium sulfate, is added to the water to attract suspended particles. Because of this, the sedimentation step is usually preceded by a chemical process known as coagulation. Suspended particles vary in source, charge, particle size, shape, and density. 9-1. Drinking Water Treatment: Filtration and Disinfection Activities: 1. 0000014904 00000 n Material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. 6. Water Treatment Sedimentation, Coagulation and Flocculation 22nd May 2018 … Material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. x�bb�e`b``Ń3� �� ��� 04/27/16 water treatment 59 G value for coagulation: 700 to 1000 S-1 ; 3000 to 5000 S-1 for Mixing time: 30 to 60 S in-line blender; 1-2 sec G value for flocculation: 20 to 80 S-1 ; Mixing time: 20 to 60 min In the flocculator design, Gt (also known Camp No. Definitions. Evaporation, distillation, crystallization (freeze concentration) Most drinking water treatment plants operate using sweep flocculation requires a higher coagulant dose, rather than charge ... A jar test simulates the coagulation and flocculation processes Fill the jars with raw water sample (500 or 1000 mL) – usually 6 jars Adjust pH of the jars while mixing using H 2 SO 4 It is a convenient reference handbook providing numerous examples and appended information and it is a vital text for course material for … All previous investigations pointed out the advantages of Moringa oleifera as a treatment agent versus traditional coagulant combinations (FeCl3 and Al2(SO4)3) with synthetic polyelectrolytes as Iron and aluminium salts are the most widely used coagulants but salts of other metals such as titanium and zirconium have been found to be highly effective as well. 4. The addition of a chemical coagulant to the water causes the formation of a precipitate, or floc, which entraps these impurities. 6. 9-1 Role of Coagulation and Flocculation Processes in Water Treatment The importance of the coagulation and flocculation processes in water treatment can be appreciated by reviewing the process flow diagrams illustrated on Fig. Addition of positively charged particles in the coagulation process is aimed to destabilizing the colloids. Groundwater and surface water contain both dissolved and suspended particles. Addition of positively charged particles in the coagulation process is aimed to destabilizing the colloids. 0000015069 00000 n Sedimentation Flocculation Coagulation Coagulation and Flocculation Coagulation and flocculationconsist of adding a floc-forming chemical reagent to a water to enmesh or combine with nonsettleable colloidal solids and slow-settling suspended solids to produce a rapid-settling floc. 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